Oswald Rivera

Author, Warrior, and Teacher

Category: rice (page 2 of 3)

Holiday treat: Rice and Pigeon Peas

In Puerto Rican cooking, rice and pigeon peas, or arroz con gadules, is the preeminent holiday side dish. When I was a kid back in the Barrio (Spanish Harlem) there wasn’t a home that didn’t have a steaming pot of arroz con gandules to go with the turkey at Thanksgiving, roast pork shoulder (pernil) at Christmas, ham or lamb at Easter. This tasty mix has been with us since I can remember, and it served as a change from the standard rice and beans.

So, what are pigeon peas? Well,  they are a legume (or fruit pod) such as beans, peas, soybeans, peanuts, alfalfa, etc. They’ve been around for about 3,500 years; and were first cultivated in eastern India, and from there spread worldwide. They were brought to the Caribbean islands by the slave trade; and until recently were virtually unknown in mainland North America. I remember that when I traveled to New England or the Midwest I couldn’t find the things anywhere. Today you can find them in any Hispanic or Caribbean market.

In the recipe given below, you can either prepare gandules from scratch, like you would do any beans, or simply get canned pigeon peas. I’ll tell you right now, there is no shame in using canned pigeon peas. I know, the purists will howl—but as viable shortcut when time is essential, the canned stuff is just as good. You may have to doctor the canned peas somewhat by adding spices such as black pepper and oregano, but the results will be acceptable.

Note that in the recipe, I favor the overnight soaking method for dry beans rather than the popular quick-soaking method where beans are covered with water, then cooked uncovered over moderate heat for 2 minutes. Afterward, they are removed from heat and left to soak for 1 hour. Then cooked as required. What bothers me about this method is that the package beans you pick up at the supermarket may be older (and drier) than last year’s leftover meatloaf. So it follows, the more soaking time, the more tender the final product. The recipe also calls for sofrito, the base flavoring used in criollo cuisine. If you don’t have sofrito, then in a small bowl combine 1 clove garlic, crushed; 1/2 onion, chopped; and 1/2 cooked chopped fresh parsley. Stir in 2 tablespoons olive oil, and then add this mixture to the recipe.

One final plug: this recipe is from my first cookbook, Puerto Rican Cuisine in America, which is going into its third printing. Want to savor more gems kike this one? Buy the book, make me rich.
   (Rice and Pigeon Peas)

1 pound fresh or dried pigeon peas, or 1 pound canned peas
2 cups rice
3 tablespoons olive oil
1/4 pound salt pork, rinsed in cold water and diced
1/4 pound lean cured ham, rinsed in cold water and diced
1 medium onion, peeled and chopped
1 medium green bell pepper (pimento), cored, seeded and chopped
2 tablespoons chopped cilantro
3 tablespoons sofrito (or the substitute given above)
1 cup alcaparrado (olive-caper mix available in Latino markets)
1 8-ounce can tomato sauce
2 tablespoons dry white wine
Salt to taste

1. If you’re using fresh pigeon peas, you’re ahead of the game. They can be cooked just as is after rinsing in cold running water. If using dry beans, they need to be soaked overnight in water to cover by at least 2 inches. Drain beans and place in a pot or kettle (a Dutch oven is perfect for this) with 2 quarts (8 cups water) and bring to a boil. Cover and boil over moderate-low heat until beans are tender (about 1 hour).
2.   Drain cooked peas and set aside, reserving 1 1/2 cups cooking liquid.
3.   Wash rice and drain.
4.   Heat oil in a heavy kettle or pot (I prefer cast-iron). Brown the salt pork.
5.   Add ham and cook on moderate heat until golden-crisp (about 4-5 minutes).
6.   Add onion, bell pepper, cilantro, sofrito, alcaparrado and tomato sauce. Sauté for about 5 minutes.
7.   Stir in rice. Add peas, reserved cooking liquid, wine and salt.
8.   Boil on moderate-high heat, uncovered, until water is absorbed (about 5-8 minutes).
9.   Cover and simmer on low heat for 30 minutes.
10. Turn off heat and let rice sit for 10 minutes before serving.
      Yield: 8 servings.

Rice with Cheese and Creamed Eggs

In our culture, rice comprises a main component. It’s not only just a side dish. In most cases it constitutes a major part of the meal whether it’s something like Arroz con Pollo (rice and chicken) or Asopao (a hefty stew), or fragrant yellow rice. When my horizons expanded, I discovered there were other methods of preparing rice—such as Italian Risotto, or Indian cumin rice, or Chinese fried rice (by the way, an American invention). The Risotto, combining Arborio rice with broth and grated cheese fascinated me. And I began experimenting, and I came up with this beauty—a simple rice with cheese and a sauce of creamed eggs. In this case, the sauce is simplicity itself: Take a can of cream soup (I like cream of mushroom) and combine it with eggs and the rice. For the cheese, you can use any cheese desired. It could be grated Parmesan, or Swiss, Gruyere, Gouda, Romano, Monterey Jack, etc. For this recipe, I used Cheddar. Whatever cheese ingredient used, you get a hearty, rich, delicious and inexpensive meal, great by itself or served with fish, seafood or meat.

In this dish, the rice is mixed with saffron, to give it that unique taste and color so revered in our cooking. If you don’t have (or can’t afford saffron) then turmeric will give the same glow and coloring. This is something acquired from Indian cuisine. It gives the dish that added oomph. As an added treat, the rice can be served in a ring mold. If you don’t have a mold, take any round pan or pot (with enough space to hold the rice), rinse the pan under cold running water, and stuff it with the cooked rice. Let it sit a couple of minutes. Then unmold, tapping the top of the pan gently, on a plate. Pour the sauce atop the rice, and you got a highfalutin continental dish.    


1 1/2 cups rice
2 cups water
Salt to taste
1/4 teaspoon saffron or turmeric
1 tablespoon olive oil
1 1/2 cups grated Cheddar cheese (or any variety desired)
2 tablespoons butter or margarine
1 medium onion, peeled and sliced into thin rings
1 can (10 3/4 oz.) cream of mushroom soup
3 tablespoons water
1/2 cup diced canned pimentos
1/2 cup finely chopped fresh parsley
6 hard-cooked eggs, quartered

1. In a 2-quart saucepan or pot, bring the water to a boil. Add rice, saffron and olive oil. Mix well, cover, reduce heat to a simmer and cook until tender and all the liquid has been absorbed (20 minutes to 1/2 hour).
2. Stir in cheese. Cover, and let sit for 10 minutes.
3. While rice is cooking, melt butter in a skillet or fry pan. Add onion and saute until soft and translucent. Stir in mushroom soup, water, pimentos, and parsley.
4. Add eggs and heat briefly.
5. Layer rice/cheese mixture into a ring mold (or individual custard cups) packing tightly with a spoon. Unmold rice ring on a serving plate. Spoon egg sauce over rice, or over individual rice molds.
    Yield: 6 servings.

Sofrito: Spanish Rice Video

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New Orleans Red Beans and Rice

I’ve always enjoyed Creole cooking. This is a style of cuisine that originated with the descendants of colonial settlers in Louisiana, mainly of French, Spanish and African descent. They have given us such popular entrées as Gumbo (a seafood stew), Jambalaya (a mix of meat, vegetables, rice and seafood) and Crayfish Étouffée (shellfish over rice). Add to that, my favorite: Red Beans and Rice (a standby in New Orleans). I daresay there as as many versions of this dish as there are chefs in New Orleans.

Traditionalists claim that New Orleans Red Beans and Rice should be made with small red beans. I’m all for tradition, but I prefer using red kidney beans. This is what I grew up on, along with black beans for Puerto Rican style black beans and rice or, as they term it in Spain and Latin America, “Moros y Cristianos” (Moors and Christians). New Orleans red beans and rice calls for Andouille sausages (a spicy sausage associated with Cajun cuisine). But you can substitute smoked sausages, or (my preference) Spanish chorizo. My version also includes salt pork rather than bacon grease which is normally used for frying. You can find salted pork in almost any market these days. They usually come in 12-ounce packages and give a heartier flavor to stir-fry dishes.

Note that the traditional way to serve this dish is to ladle the beans onto a plate, add a scoop of rice on top and season with a squirt or two of Tabasco. This is the correct procedure, sworn so by New Orleans residents. Diverge from this procedure and you will incur the wrath of the gods.


1 pound dried red beans
1/2 cup salt pork, washed and diced
1/2 cup chopped ham
1 large yellow onion, peeled and thinly sliced
Salt and fresh ground black pepper to taste
1 medium green bell pepper, chopped
Pinch of cayenne pepper (or more to taste if you like it spicy)
3 bay leaves
3 tablespoons fresh chopped parsley
2 teaspoons fresh thyme
1/2 pound chorizo or smoked sausage, split in half lengthwise and cut into 1-inch pieces
1 pound smoked ham hocks
3 cloves garlic, peeled and finely chopped
10 cups chicken stock
Cooked white rice (about 4-6 cups)
1/2 cup chopped scallions

1. Place beans in a pot or Dutch oven cover with water by 2 inches.  Let soak overnight. Drain, place in a bowl and set aside.
2. In the same pot or Dutch oven as before, heat the salt pork over medium high heat. Add the ham and cook, stirring, until pork pieces are well browned (3-4 minutes).
3. Stir in the onion, bell pepper, and cayenne. Cook, stirring, until the onion and bell pepper are soft (about 4 minutes).
4. Add bay leaves, parsley, thyme, chorizo, and ham hocks. Cook, stirring, until chorizo and ham hocks are brown (about 4 minutes). Add the garlic and cook for 1 minute.
5. Add the beans and chicken stock. Stir to mix, and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer, uncovered, stirring occasionally until the beans are tender and the liquid starts to thicken. This should take at least 2 hours or more. If the beans become too thick and dry, you can add more water, 1/4 cup at a time.
6. Remove pot from heat and with the back of a heavy spoon, mash about 1/4 cup of the beans against the side of the pot. Put back on the burner and continue to cook over low heat until the beans are tender and creamy (about 15 minutes more). Remove the bay leaves and serve with the rice, garnished with scallions.
    Yield: 6 servings.

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Texas Hash with Rice

Another cold snap here in the Northeast. For this kind of weather you need stick to the ribs food. And one of the best recipes I’ve had for years is Texas Hash with Rice. I acquired this gem back in the 1970s when it appeared in the Scripps Howard News Service, which is no longer in business. It’s a filling, tasty, and inexpensive no-frills antidote to the cold weather blues. I’ve modified the recipe according to the Rivera family palate.

You can make this recipe as hot and as spicy as you want depending upon how much chili powder you add to it. The original recipe called for 1 to 2 tablespoons chili powder. That is a lot. But, if you like 3-alarm chili hash, go right ahead. Also, it called for 1 tablespoon of salt, which is quite a bit of salt. Use as much as you like, but be judicious. It also had as an ingredient, garlic powder. I prefer fresh whole garlic for a more distinctive taste. Another note: kids love this hash—and you don’t have to be a Texan to appreciate it.


3 tablespoons olive oil

1 medium onion, peeled and thinly sliced
1 small-to-medium green bell pepper, cut into small slices, then cut the slices in half
1 pound lean ground beef
1/2 teaspoon chili powder (or more to taste)

Salt and ground black pepper to taste
1 clove garlic, peeled and finely minced
1 14.5-ounce can tomatoes
2 cups cooked rice

1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. 
2. Heat olive oil in a cast-iron skillet. Add onion and green bell pepper, and saute 2-3 minutes.
3. Add beef, chili powder, salt, pepper and garlic. Cook until meat is no longer pink.
4. Add canned tomatoes (with their liquid), and rice.
6. Place skillet in oven and bake for 25 minutes or until heated through. Note: If you don’t have a cast-iron skillet, you can use whatever skillet you have on hand then transfer the hash-rice mixture to a  baking dish and bake as required.
    Yield: 4 servings or more

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Rice Cake, Glazed and Ornamented

Marie Antoine Careme is regarded as the leader of what is called la grande cuisine Francaise. That is, the classic French style of cooking heavy on sauces, heavy on creams, heavy on decoration, heavy on everything. Careme had an impressive resume. At various times he was chef de cuisine to Czar Alexander I and the Rothschilds. But his recipes are daunting. Most are difficult to emulate, even in a modern kitchen. Case in point are his famous chartreuse dishes such as Chartreuse printuniere (Sping Chartreuse), Chartreuse à la parisienne, en surprise, and Chartruese de perdreaux, which he called “the queen of all entrees.”  These were molded dishes using an assortment of vegetables, fowl, wild game, sausages, and a host of other stuff. His Paris Chartreuse even has truffles, pullets, fillets, forcemeat (meat mixture with fat), and lobster tail all baked in a cylindrical mold.

I took one look at these recipe and said, No way. It would take forever to do one of these things. But you have to give credit to the man. His list of classic French dishes is exhaustive. With such works as L’art de la cuisine au dix-neuvième siècle (The Art of the Kitchen at the XIX Century) and Le mâitre d’hôtel francais (The Mâitre d’ of the French Hotel) he not only discussed garnishes and accessories, but also took on such topics as the provisioning and organization of the kitchen. All that said, I did manage to find one recipe which I can identify with. And which under the circumstances, is not that difficult to make.  So, kiddies, here’s your chance to create something on the grande mode of classical cuisine. This will surely impress family and friends. You’ll become the Julia Child of your set. The recipe is Rice Cake Glazed and Ornamented. I give it exactly as noted by Monsieur Careme.


Put 8 ounces of rice, boiled as usual, with the addition of a clove of vanilla, in a semi-globular mold, buttered; then turn it on a dish, and when cold, mask it all over with transparent apricot-marmalade. Decorate the top and the sides, according to your fancy, with pistachios, angelica, currants, verjus grapes, and preserved cherries. Serve it up, either hot or cold.

   Yield: about 4 servings

Note: Verjus grapes are unripe, green grapes. You can substitute seedless green grapes if convenient.

Caption: courtesy of exclassics

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Rice with Crabmeat

In our culture we love crabmeat, what we call “jueyes.” In our family, my father’s favorite rice mix was rice with crabmeat. Whether living in Spanish Harlem or Puerto Rico, my father would spend countless hours seeking a restaurant with the best recipe. However, none compared to my mother’s arros con jueyes.

Let me state that, if desired, you can prepare the crabmeat from scratch; and it’s best to use Caribbean crabs. Such a recipe is given in my cookbook Puerto Rican Cuisine in America p. 192-193 (Perseus Books – Running Press). But if you’re press for time and don’t want to bother with preparing the thing, you can use canned crabmeat. No one is going to fault you for it.

 (Rice with Crabmeat)

2 cups rice
1 tablespoon olive oil
2 ounces lean cured ham or salt pork, rinsed and diced
1 small green bell pepper, cored, seeded and chopped
1/2 cup finely chopped onions
1 clove garlic, peeled and finely chopped
3 sweet chili peppers (aji dulce), seeded and chopped (found in any Asian or Caribbean market)
1/2 cup tomato sauce
6 pimento stuffed Spanish olives
1 1/2 cups crabmeat
1 packet sasón accent (Goya makes a good one with coriander and annatto)
Salt and ground black pepper to taste
Water to cover rice

1. Wash rice under cold running water, and drain.
2. Heat oil in a heavy kettle or Dutch oven and brown ham over moderate heat.
3. Add bell pepper, onions, garlic and sweet chili peppers. Sauté for about 3 minutes.
4. Add tomato sauce, olives, and mix well.
5. Stir in rice, crabmeat and sasón accent.
6. Add water to cover contents in kettle by 1/4 to 1/2 inch above level of rice. Adjust salt and pepper to taste.
7. Bring to a boil. Cover tightly and simmer on low heat until water is absorbed and rice is tender ((about 20 minutes).
8. Uncover and simmer 5 minutes more if drier rice is preferred.
     Yield: 6 servings.

Photo: courtesy of ifood.tv

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Rice Pudding

For the holidays we Puerto Ricans have our own versions of desserts. The most popular is arroz con dulce. Simply, rice pudding. The literal translation of arroz con dulce is “sweetened rice.” A more appropriate term would be sweet coconut rice. Coconut milk is the main component of the dish. In my first cookbook, Puerto Rican Cuisine in America, I give the recipe using a fresh ripe coconut. If you want to be traditional and use a genuine coconut, you are welcomed to get the book and try the recipe. For those who don’t have the time to crack open and prepare a coconut, I give below a quicker recipe using canned coconut milk or cream. In either case, the recipe is marvelous and delicious. Believe me, this is not your ordinary rice pudding recipe. As a dessert, it sets the bar pretty high.

ARROZ CON DULCE (Rice Pudding)

2 cups either long grain or short grain rice
2 cups canned coconut milk or cream
1 5-ounce can evaporated milk
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract
1/2 cup seedless black raisins
1 1/2 cups brown sugar
1 teaspoon butter or margarine
1/2 cup cracker crumbs

1. Wash rice at least three times in cold water and drain to rid it of starch. What in Pennsylvania Dutch country is known as “washing in several waters.”
2. In a heavy kettle or pot, heat one cup water. When it comes to a roiling boil, add rice, coconut milk, evaporated milk, cinnamon, cloves, salt, vanilla, raisins, sugar and butter. Cook on moderate heat, stirring frequently with a wooden spoon, for 35 minutes or until rice is tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed.
3. Spoon into a round serving platter or large pie plate.
4. Sprinkle with cracker crumbs and allow to cool at room temperature before serving.
Yield: 10 0r more servings.

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The Color of Rice

My friends marvel when I serve them rice pilaf or yellow rice dishes. Invariably they ask: what colors the rice? It’s a complex question, depending upon the dish. Fragrant colored rice has been in my culture since the beginning. It was the Spaniards who got the method from the Moors, when the Arabs introduced saffron as a flavoring and coloring agent in Southern Spain. Saffron is still the best thing around—but it’s expensive. If you can afford it, more power to you. All you do is add a few strands of the stuff to the rice while it’s boiling to get that great arroz amarillo (yellow rice) hue.

My parents came from the Greatest Generation (as it is called by some). So, during the Great Depression, they and their fellows developed equitable shortcuts to using safron (which they couldn’t get and, even if they could, they couldn’t afford it). Below are easy, ready to use alternatives that give rice whatever color you want; and also add to its flavor. I’ve used these alternatives, at one time or another, depending upon my financial condition, and it’s given me a marvelous rice dish every time.

Achiote – This is simply annatto seeds cooked in vegetable oil or olive oil. It’s our favorite product for coloring food. You can find it in most supermarkets in 8-ounce jars. Annatto is the pulp of the tropical tree Bixa orellana; and annato dye is used in coloring some cheeses. To prepare: just cook 1 tablespoon annatto seeds in 1/2 cup olive oil, on low heat, stirring frequently for 5 minutes. During cooking, the oil will turn a bright orange-red. The longer the seeds steep in oil, the deeper the hue. Remove from heat, let cool, and strain into a glass jar or container. You can keep it in the fridge indefinitely. Use as you wish, from 1 to 3 tablespoons when cooking rice, depending on the color you want to attain.

Tomato Sauce and Tomato Paste – This will do when you don’t have annatto seeds. But, depending on how much you use, it will render a more reddish color to the rice. Now, experts in my family contend that tomato sauce will give a better color, while tomato paste will give a better flavor. It’s all a matter of personal preference. To prepare: cook 1/3 or more cup tomato sauce, or 2-3 tablespoons tomato paste, in 3 tablespoons olive oil. If you want to enhance the flavor, you can add 1 small chopped onion and/or 1-2 cloves finely diced garlic. When you reached desired consistency, add a couple of cups of rice. Stir to mix, add water, bring to a boil, lower heat, cover, and cook the rice as you normally would.

Tumeric – This spice is known as Indian saffron, since it’s widely used as an alternative for the more expensive saffron. You get it in the supermarket in the form of a dry root powder. It not only adds a custard-like yellow color to rice but it also impart a distinct flavor. Tumeric is extremely strong, and it gets stronger as it cooks. A little goes a long way. Be judicious in its use. As noted, it’s a powerful yellow dye, so try not to stain your apron or clothes with it while cooking. To use: just add 1 teaspoon (or more, but be careful) to two cups of rice when it comes to a boil. Cover and simmer as you normally would.

Dry mustard – That’s right, dry yellow mustard in the powdered form. I know. You’re thinking about mustard on hot dogs, burgers, etc.; but mustard, in its own right, adds great flavor and color to foods. Like tumeric, it tends to be strong. Figure it this way, you can substitute 1 teaspoon of dry yellow mustard for 1 teaspoon tumeric. Just add to rice when it comes a boil, cover, and cook as instructed.

Parsley – For green rice. Yes, it’s hard being green. But in rice it’s okay. Adds another dimension and flavor to the dish. Simple: take 1 bunch of parsley (I prefer the curly Italian type parsley), wash and chop finely (by hand, or in a food processor). Saute it in 2-3 tablespoons olive oil with a couple of finely chopped garlic cloves thrown in. To enhance the flavor you can even add a chicken bouillon cube, and (if you want) 3 tablespoons light cream. Add rice, water, and cook as you normally wood. It will give you deliciously green-hued rice.

Black Rice (Arroz con Calamares) – This is rice cooked with squid or cuttlefish. The color comes from the dark color imparted to the grains as they cook with the squid in its ink. It’s a favorite in my crowd. The trick here is that the rice will come out darker if canned squid is used. 4-ounce cans of squid in their ink can be found in most supermarkets or Asian and Caribbean stores. To prepare: saute, in 2 tablespoons olive oil, 1 green bell pepper (cored seeded and chopped), 1 small onion (chopped), and 1 clove garlic (finely minced). Add 1/2 cup tomato sauce, and 1 chicken bouillon cube. Stir in 3 cans squid in this ink plus 6 pimento stuffed Spanish olives. Stir in 2 cups rice, water to cover by about 1/4-inch, season with salt and pepper, bring to a boil, and cook until liquid is absorbed (about 20-25 minutes).

There you have it, friends, different and varied ways to add delicious color to your rice dish. Experiment, see which one you like best—and enjoy!

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Fried Rice

Nothing speaks to us more of what we consider “Chinese” cuisine than fried rice. Problem is, it ain’t Chinese, it’s an American invention. It’s part of that overall catchphrase of what in known in the trade as “Chinese-American” cooking. Think of chop suey, egg foo young, chow mein, etc. They did not originate in China. The were invented in the good ole U.S.A (just like fortune cookies). And it all has to do with the Cantonese influence on American cooking.

Large scale immigration from Canton in southern China to the U.S. in the 1800s assured that this Americanization of Chinese cooking would take hold. The Chinese immigrants who flooded to California to work on the Pacific Railroad were constrained by the lack of authentic ingredients and vegetables that had represented their diet back home. They had to make do with what was available. Not only that, if they went into the restaurant business they had to make their dishes palatable to Western tastes. It’s amusing to think that someone from the Chinese mainland would come to this country and go in search of genuine American chop suey, chow mein, or fried rice.

Fried rice is a very easy dish to make. All you need is rice. And there’s an argument here. Some people swear that genuine fried rice should be done only with the sticky Chinese style of rice or something like Nishiki premium grade rice (I know, it’s Japanese, but some consider it of better quality). I cook fried rice with the good old long grain variety such as Carolina brand or even Uncle Ben’s. That’s what my friend Eddie Hor, of late memory, always used. This is his recipe.

It should be noted that, in some fried rice recipes, the eggs are cooked along with the rice. Eddie would cook scrambled eggs separately and then add the eggs to the rice. Also, one can use light soy sauce or dark soy sauce if you want a darker color.

You can add other ingredients to this basic recipe, and make it vegetable fried rice, or shrimp
fried rice, or whatever (you can even cook it with Spam). Be creative, let your imagination reign.


4 tablespoons peanut oil or olive oil (I prefer the olive oil)
2 large eggs, lightly beaten
Ground black pepper to taste
4 cups cooked rice
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1-2 scallions, or as many as desired, washed and coarsely chopped

1. In a wok or frying pan, heat 2 tablespoons oil over medium-high heat and add the eggs. Cook, stirring, until they are lightly scrambled, seasoning with pepper. Remove the eggs to a dish and set aside.
2. Clean out the wok or pan with paper towels. Add the remaining 2 tablespoons oil and, when hot, add the rice. Stir fry for a few minutes over medium-high heat, using chopsticks or a wooden spoon to evenly cook the rice.
3. Stir in the soy sauce and scallions. When rice is heated through and has achieved desired color, spread the scrambled eggs over the top. Serve immediately.
Yield: 4 servings.

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